Action: Decreases glucose production by liver and increases insulin sensitivity.
Can be safely taken on a low-carb diet.
There’s minimal risk of low blood sugar if only on Metformin.
Sulphonylureas : Gliclazide Glibenclamide
Action: increase Insulin release from pancreas
Effect on Blood Sugar : Lower
Danger : Hypoglycaemia
Discuss with doctor before going on low carb diet.
GLP-1 agonists (e.g. Victoza, Byetta)
Action: Mimics the function of incretin – a hormone in the body that helps lower blood sugars after a meal
Effect on Blood Sugar : Marginally lower
Advice: Discuss with doctor before starting low carb diet
DPP-4 inhibitors (e.g. Januvia/Sitagliptin)
Action: Protect incretins from damage
Effect on Blood Sugar: Rarely leads to low blood sugar on a low carb diet.
SGLT2 inhibitors (e.g. Farxiga, Jardiance, Invokana)
Action: Prevent Kidneys reabsorbing glucose
Effect on blood sugar:
Danger: Increases risk of Ketoacidosis – a life threatening condition associated with diabetes. Symptoms include: Nausea, Vomiting extreme thirst, rapid breathing
Advice: Consult with doctor before going on a low carb diet.
Action: The body’s storage hormone – takes sugar from the blood and puts it in the cells.
Effect on blood sugar: Lowers blood glucose
Danger: Coma due to low blood sugar
Advice: Consult with doctor before going on a low carb diet as dose will need careful monitoring.